Why We Might Be Alone in the Universe
PBS Space Time
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Why does it appear, that humanity is the lone intelligence in the universe? The answer might be that planet Earth is more unique than we've previously assumed. The rare earth hypothesis posits exactly this - that a range of factors made Earth exceptionally unusual and uniquely able to produce intelligent life.
In upcoming episodes we’ll be exploring the anthropic principle and its two main versions - the strong and the weak anthropic principles. The strong anthropic principle tells us that the observed universe must be able to produce observers - including the contentious idea that this predicts the existence of universes beyond our own. But in today's episode we’re going to focus on the weak anthropic principle. It says that we must find ourselves in a part of the universe capable of supporting us. For example, in a planetary biosphere rather than floating in the void between the galaxies. This may seems tautological, but accounting for this observer selection bias is important to understanding why the universe looks the way it does from our perspective. And the weak anthropic principle is much more useful than that. When combined with the apparent absence of alien civilizations, it may tell us why intelligent life is incredibly rare in our universe.
Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
Written by Matt O'Dowd
Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer & Adriano Leal
Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber
Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber
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  • PBS Space Time
    PBS Space Time

    Hey Everyone! So this is our first episode released in 4K. Hope you enjoy the upgrade.

    • Doozy

      Omg , enough with the space lies

    • DetailedGaming

      Time Traveler here. I did appear in your studio but do to the fact that my matter more specifically my atoms at your current time already existed in a pre different form(s). The first law taking presidents "energy can only be transferred" I couldn't exactly transfer my current atomic structure onto the atoms how ever dispersed already existing in your time in some varying form. I'm from the future my atoms/energy exist now differently then it did in this time. So in truth to say I timed traveled would be incorrect I more or less time probed. In the future we have developed the technology to essentially what you would compare in your modern day to placing a drone within an atom of insignificance. That in your time would be made up of a molecule of air and in our time is the same of similar makeup. Then we watch learn of course we can also implement this on a large scale in a multitude of vastly varying ways I won't go into detail. In truth I found it quite humoring someone of your time would think that someone of my time would expose such blatant technological advances. However I find it equally entertaining to know that no one will take this seriously which is the joke. I did expose great technological advances.

    • mikey forrester
      mikey forrester

      Please change the presenter PBS. The topics are interesting but I can't listen to this nasal whiny Aussie talking for more than 1 minute.

    • Scott West
      Scott West

      If we're the only ones isn't it out duty to populate the vast emptiness left to just us?

    • Zhor'i Ambassador
      Zhor'i Ambassador

      Oh, you wish you were alone in the Universe. Although it would make your existence void if my people never had existed. Perhaps you should accept the real world rather than fabricate it.

  • Leandro Lapa
    Leandro Lapa

    Even if advanced life is not SO rare, the sheer dimension of space may be an insurmountable barrier to any possible contact.

  • 3% Milk
    3% Milk

    If the universe is as big as they say then without a doubt there's other life

  • John Thibault
    John Thibault

    Lucky? You said "one of more extremely improbable events". If you string them together what's the probability that complex life formed? Heck what's the probability the universe exists at all?

  • Lamster66

    Ok missed the comments last week so i'll tackle 2 this week "Loop quantum gravity and Time travel EASY!" LOL

  • Peter Parkorr
    Peter Parkorr

    The reason time travellers aren't posting comments in the past is because they know they're not allowed to, obviously. It goes against Buddha's teachings (the original futurist) and might kill everyone. Shame because we need plenty of survival tips these days! Go green, people.

  • Two Triz
    Two Triz

    There is definitely intelligent life on Jupiter using the storm to hide from aliens

  • Unsupported Elephant
    Unsupported Elephant

    🌍Are we alone in the universe or universes?? 🌎Some people are using science, some religion, yet others combine them two. 🌏 The most importantly we are unable to answer this without educated imagination and definitely not with the ignorance and arrogance from big institutions/organisations. If you understand this It will prove you have inner meaning and values lnkd.in/djhgww9 link to short quotations and thoughts 👍👍🙂🙂 thank you🌙🪐

  • David Garratt
    David Garratt

    There i a chance that we are isolated within our small small pocket of the galaxy. We may be a Barbaric unfounded Solar System. We all know life will thrive within the conditions it arrives, we as a human race don't even know what is lying beneath the deepest of Oceans. I am not saying that I believe in every possible alien life being possible but we are not alone, within the universe there would be a substantial environment to even have bacteria so without a doubt there is life out there that will some day produce thinking conscious entities such as ourselves .

  • Thomas Allore
    Thomas Allore

    Why do we assume that all possible life requires oxygen and/or water? Why cant life made of silicone or anything else that needs sulphuric acid or anything else to survive exist? Life always finds a way, right? We don't know everything and we certainly can't know that life not made of carbon doesn't exist.

  • Angus McDonald
    Angus McDonald

    So we are where we are and that's that. Maybe we are the first or maybe on the grand scale we are the 60,000 ischt but time sees all others die before us. I don't think we can ever answer this living on a rock looking at the inconceivable size that faces us. We are here for a micro second in astronomic terms and our race has been here for a small amount of time. Im here because there was no where else to be. Mind boggling !

  • James Myers
    James Myers

    Honestly this episode is amazing, awesome script

  • Nunya Damn Bidness
    Nunya Damn Bidness

    rare earth hypothesis is for sheeple. 70 percent of our galaxy alone has simlar stars with habitable zones. i think life is about as common as mold appearing on bread you left out overnight.

  • Max Held
    Max Held

    it would be such a bummer if we're alone out here. I have no faith that humans will pull of any universal traversing due to our seemingly inherent bias towards self destruction. So much of the universe will remain unobserved by the universes minds. That's why I like to think that there's other living beings out there who arent so prone to genocide and the like. well one can hope anyways

  • Samuel Pope
    Samuel Pope

    In the absence of a better understanding of abiogenesis it's anybodies guess.

  • A Frustrated Gamer
    A Frustrated Gamer

    <a href="#" class="seekto" data-time="656">10:56</a> Don't say it... You just couldn't help yourself...

  • David Andersen
    David Andersen

    As an agnostic (Not an atheist), I am comfortable in making the following statement: Considering all the random odds we defy, it seems as if there is a God. Almost, at least. Either that, or our universe is random, beautiful, and terrifying. 😬


    Maybe we with our space travel and all are spreading earth microbes. These microbes may suffer in a new environment but may even evolve to survive accordingly. And from one small organisms intelligent life may evolve in that place millions of years later. May be that was what happened here. Some alien civilisation could have visited long before causing foreign microbes to enter earths atmosphere.

  • Jack McPhee
    Jack McPhee

    I really like these videos, but I think you should be more professional and wear some nice clothes and not some old t-shirts. I find it distracting.,

  • Karvas X3
    Karvas X3

    He talks like there’s intelligent life in earth I don’t believe there’s any intelligent life At least not on this planet

  • We Are Saints
    We Are Saints

    It’s almost like we were created huh

  • Izek1el 83
    Izek1el 83

    What if we made a tool to see things far away that are as they are now? Because we see things lightyears away that could have advanced way before the light of their location arrived on earth.

  • Jhonathan Cabrera
    Jhonathan Cabrera

    What if planets are just electrons in an atom and we are the make up of something much bigger.

  • Derpy Pedro
    Derpy Pedro

    What a wonderful world God has made.

  • rubiks6

    There is no such thing as "simple" life. The simplest cell in existence is extremely complex and researchers don't know how it works.

  • MiloTheSwift


  • Adam Graham
    Adam Graham

    I am from Asgard ! Weak Mortals ;p


    This is why we need to populate and terraform the universe

  • Alphabet Royal
    Alphabet Royal

    I don't believe for one second that we are alone in the universe.

  • Magnus Hultqvist
    Magnus Hultqvist

    I belive life in simple form thrive on several planets. But high inteligent life is extreamly uncomon.

    • rubiks6

      There is no such thing as "simple" life. The simplest cell in existence is extremely complex and researchers don't know how it works.

  • Caleb J
    Caleb J

    My time machine is a budget model and I accidentally showed up during the pandemic of the 2020s sorry Matt

  • Arthur Zettel
    Arthur Zettel

    Until Humans can decide to not kill automatically out of fear of what they do not understand, Extraterrestrials (Will Not) make Public Contact with World Leaders.

  • cherry soda
    cherry soda

    no one even knows the full extent of our universe so how can you say that intelligent life is rare

  • ethercore

    Nice video, but you got the author's name wrong. It's not Robert Brownlee, it's Donald (Don) Brownlee. 20 years ago he was my high school job shadow. I followed him around for a day at the University of Washington and heard all about the work he and his colleagues were doing in Astrobiology. I finally didn't choose to go into the field but I'll forever be grateful for that experience. So Don, if you're reading this, thank you!

  • Damir Bolic
    Damir Bolic

    We could argue that if Earth is so rare(unique) then emergence of intelligent life is almost 100% certain on any place that has a right conditions for life( since it has emerged on Earth which by definition is rare/unique). Great video, doubt that Fermi paradox will be "solved" any time soon

  • anonygent

    How about "functionally alone in the universe"? You could speculate that there are, were, or will be intelligent life somewhere in the universe, but the probability that it will exist in the same galaxy and time period as us, plus have characteristics that we could recognize as similar to us, are so remote that we are, for all intents and purposes, alone.

  • Michigan USA/Singapore S.E.Asia
    Michigan USA/Singapore S.E.Asia

    But you said there are multiple universes and earths too🤔

  • Dave Duffy
    Dave Duffy

    We are the only ones like us, but who knows what’s out there or anything that our senses don’t pick up here. We are a limited species.

  • J Scott Scott
    J Scott Scott

    “Intelligent Life”. These humans are so “fool” of themselves.

  • kendell bedenfield jr
    kendell bedenfield jr

    That's a lot of luck and coincidence your spitting.

  • viresh dubey
    viresh dubey

    Maybe this is an AI simulation where an very advance ai was trying to create life and all the other planets are its failed attempts earth is its success.....

  • Lonswita Chimbila
    Lonswita Chimbila

    The moon shouldn't be there, if it collided with earth it would of destroyed earth but hows it in an obit of earth at the exact distance to sustain life as we know it. A little science leads you away from God but much science leads you back. we are looking at whats observable for the answers, which is like looking at an old house and trying to work out who built it from looking at the nails holding it together. We have moved a long way past a natural process no matter how much time you want to imagine earth is, it still will not happen with out an out side source. DNA for example the code book to life is only possible if it was designed as every animal is in families, eg dogs breed dogs, cats breed cats and so on. If i made twenty cars and need them all to have basic requirements to function then they all would have a fuel tank, steering wheel, and wheels. Now thats what we observe in so many animals, eyes and two eyes, legs, tongues and so on like design principals. The information (DNA) is only being lost, not one piece of information is being added so who or what wrote to code book to life to begin with. I love it when brilliant minds try to articulate impossible ideas.

  • Chris Stephens
    Chris Stephens

    What blows my mind is the arrogance of the human scientist. Scientists believe that everything everywhere has to be carbon-based to be just to be considered “life” just because every form of life on our tiny, little, insignificant rock is.

  • Dj Lab
    Dj Lab

    There R Aliens, And they Are Totally Hostiles. Take me 4 a Fool... But not for long though… U’ll see... Well... Feel as well... Good luck with that anyway...

  • Christofer Jacobs
    Christofer Jacobs

    @PBS Space Time , Is there an interpretation of the Weak Anthropic Principle which postulates the existence of a multiverse? Or is it just the Strong who does so?

  • Chris M
    Chris M

    Well i see a hand in all these facts.

  • MattWhatsGoinOn

    There's no one else out there. Prove me wrong.

  • Mike Martin
    Mike Martin

    Billions of star systems in our galaxy, billions of galaxies in the universe. Only human hubris assumes we are the rare exception .

  • Doozy

    Omg , enough with the space lies

  • Jhabari Owens
    Jhabari Owens

    So basically we got to find other earth like planets with a moon and that has planets the size of Jupiter and Saturn and the earth like planets also have to have a tilt like ours?

  • Philip Robertson III
    Philip Robertson III

    Of course we're alone in this universe. I highly doubt any intelligent alien life would show their face around this hot mess of a place.

  • J

    If the universe is truly infinite then there must be infinite planets that support intelligent life too, now how far away this other intelligent life would be is not something you can say with any certainty. Still, based on logic and mathematics it would be much less likely that we are the only intelligent life in an unlimited universe.

  • Jack Williams
    Jack Williams

    No mention that we may be alone because other entities could be just as likely to wipe themselves out before developing interstellar travel.

    • Neil Hart
      Neil Hart

      That's not the point of the rare earth hypothesis whatsoever.

  • Raz Berry925
    Raz Berry925

    The Fibonacci sequence should prove this false shouldn’t it?

  • Razak 44
    Razak 44

    First off there are extreme limitations to what we can learn just sitting here on Earth. What we don't know vastly out weighs what we do know. The universe is immense. The idea that we are alone is naive for some and wishful thinking for others. There may be other races that actually would not be able to live on the surface of Earth without protective gear. There may be other races that think we are stupid for living on the surface of a planet because of how risky it is. We are at risk of natural cosmic disasters and of other hostile races that would kill us all for a variety of possible reasons. I think there are races that live inside planets and at the bottom of oceans and do not advertise their presence. Probably because of hard lessons learned waring with other dangerous races. We have much to learn.

  • Rigor Mortis
    Rigor Mortis

    humanity is earths seed to populate the universe

  • Roxie D.
    Roxie D.

    Thank you for this... I feel lucky and unique right now...

  • Mike Taylor
    Mike Taylor

    A near infinite set of unlikely events took place thismorning alone. Let's stop pretending we're special based on circumstance.

    • rubiks6

      @Mike Taylor - The Drake equation is a series of factors (5th-grade math, "factors." Think multiplication.). If any one of those factors is zero, then the product is zero. It only takes one zero. 5th-grade math. (Now I'll see if you know what is the next reasonable question to ask.)

    • Mike Taylor
      Mike Taylor

      @rubiks6 Drake Equation shows high probability of life even with tiny numbers because there are an estimated 6 sextilion stars in the universe with over 13 billion years of time to brew. Improbable things become highly likely under those circumstances.

    • rubiks6

      @Mike Taylor - There are an awful lot of parameters in the Drake equation. Many of them are unknown. Researchers don't even know _which_ parameters should be in any sort of Drake equation. If any of them are unknown then you have no basis for your claim that we are not special. It's just your opinion. You should state it as such and not denigrate those who disagree with you by accusing them of pretending. Stop pretending that you know everything.

    • Mike Taylor
      Mike Taylor

      @rubiks6 Do you have any indication that we're not-not special? Edit: The Drake Equation, if you're not trolling.

    • rubiks6

      Do you have any indication that we're not special?

  • roj30001

    The anthropology principle “an observed universe must be able to produce observers” a meaningless principle created by an observer and not the universe

  • Baby Whale Crypto
    Baby Whale Crypto

    Based on our own solar system alone the chance of life in our galaxy is liberally 1 in 8 in a randomly selected solar system, excluding natural satellites of planets. So, non-intelligent life should be very common in the universe or at least in our galaxy, but let's look at intelligent life. The range of species on Earth is from 7 million to 1 trillion , not including the 99% of them that have already gone extinct according to scientists, so that puts all species that have ever existed on Earth at a very conservative number of 700,000,000 (700 million or 0.7 billion). So the odds of intelligent life (to explore space) based on our own solar system is 1/8 * 1/(.7b) or 1 in 5.6 billion - the 1/8 comes from the fact that in our solar system, Earth is the only planet hospitable enough for a very small fraction life to endure for long periods. So based on our own solar system, given that there are about 100 billion planets in our galaxy based on the sample size of 500 exoplanets that we have found locally, so very liberally about 100/8 = 12.5 billion of them have non-intelligent life. The odds of 12.5 billion planets that have non-intelligent life in our galaxy having human-like intelligence is about 50-50 (0.448). So, based on our solar system alone, we are likely the only intelligent species in our galaxy, which basically means that intelligent life is likely an extremely unusual fluke of nature. I would think of human-like intelligent life as a destructive force of nature (black holes are to nearby stars what intelligent life is to nearby non-intelligent life), basically a planetary cancer to all other living beings, eventually causing extinction of most species. Intelligence begets knowledge which begets technology which begets destruction unlike any other non-intelligent species.

    • rubiks6

      From your first sentence - How many planetary systems have a planet like the Earth? Just in our own galaxy. All that writing and math, all based on really bad assumptions. You really weren't paying attention to the video.

  • NeuralBrew

    There could be an enormous number of earth-like planets in our observable universe, but we would still likely be alone. The reason is the odds of proteins and self-replicating molecules necessary for life randomly forming twice in any finite universe are so astronomical. The fact that life is so unlikely seems to make it obvious that there must be an infinite number of universes and if there is life in them, they would most all be like us, alone in a vast universe.

    • rubiks6

      "The fact that life is so unlikely seems to make it obvious that there must be an infinite number of universes ..." I'm sorry but I fail to see any connection between 'life being unlikely' and the existence of other universes. Please explain how one leads to the other.

  • Mike

    So as usual nowadays, the scientist explains things in a very acertive manner, all based on what he knows; Very good. However, considering that it is not the first time that new information has shaken and even renderd obsolete the obsolute truth of the day. Shouldn't the scientist be more humble and take seriously into account the infinite enormousity of the yet unknown? Or is it like someone once said; which went something like this, "there is nothing else new to discover, but only to measure the known more precisely"?.

  • Barry Ledbetter
    Barry Ledbetter

    I admire and love the way you explain everything! Love the Upgrade!!!! Cheers!

  • leonardo alexis
    leonardo alexis

    Imagine trying to get your grandma to follow along on this video🥴 I love this so much♥️

  • justin zacharko
    justin zacharko

    In the forever expanding universe we are not the only form of life. Just accept it. It’s pretty stupid to think we are the only planet suitable to hold life.

  • MoneyShift 3000
    MoneyShift 3000

    I'm sorry sir, but I think it's too early to conclude.

  • Just some Gurl With Red hair
    Just some Gurl With Red hair

    Egocentric fools.

  • temaron cansler
    temaron cansler

    heres the problem with this argument. just because its rare doesnt mean its impossible and saying that something thats rare has a 0% chance of happening is wrong. its like saying roll this 1000 sided die twice and get a one each time. its a 1/1,000,000 chance sure but eventually your gonna hit it and since the universe is infinite u have infinite chances

  • popiposh

    I'm curious to know if our usable carbon abundance is considered a rare earth quality as well.

  • Real One
    Real One

    There is a lot of dence people in this comment section....

  • Richard Russell
    Richard Russell

    We are not alone... To think that is reckless and arrogant.... Humans are made up of the most common elements in the universe and my guess is so is all life.... Everywhere.

  • Ken Paulsen
    Ken Paulsen

    Yep. God made this whole universe for us just so we'd know how important we are to Him (and marvel about Him).

    • Ken Paulsen
      Ken Paulsen

      @BatmanIsGae69 Here's an interesting tidbit... Our telescopes can see an equal distance in all directions. Beyond that distance, the galaxies are (apparently) expanding in space faster than the speed of light and so we'll never see them. So from a particular point of view, we're the center of the universe.

    • BatmanIsGae69


  • Harru Kuehn
    Harru Kuehn

    What is even more incredible is the probability of life emerging anywhere astronomical. Now let that life be multicellular, further animal and still life that is self aware. You get a probability so small it might as well be zero. Still we have the Drake Equation, which states that there might be billions upon billions of opportunities for life to emerge. It more likely that life exist in abundance as does consciousness.

  • Booboobear2388

    The theory of evolution is, at its most basic level, a description of a process. In this case, the description of the process of how life began. If the process is valid, then life should be seen everywhere. It shouldn't be hidden or hard to find. It is the desire to validate evolutionary theory that is driving the search to find life in the universe. But if there is no other life out there, the evolutionary process is in big trouble. Because it is very difficult to formulate a process around a "one off" occurrence.

    • Booboobear2388

      @Liesandpolitics - I'm not struggling. We are dealing with the environment (i.e. universe) and what might come about in that environment (i.e. life). You can have a universe capable of life, but it may or may not have life. If you have a universe that can't support carbon based life as we know it, there will be no life. I apologize if I didn't make that distinction clear. I too have a strong faith in God, but my argument is not directly to prove the existence of God, but to address the validity of evolution itself. All I'm doing is pointing out that evolution makes extraordinary claims. And extraordinary claims require extraordinary proof. Has evolution met this criteria? I don't think so. Which brings us back to why the search for intelligent life. If we did find life, we would have to conclude the evolutionary process works elsewhere and is a valid theory. If not, it's in trouble. It might have to be substantially revised or scrapped completely. Only time will tell.

    • Liesandpolitics

      Booboobear2388 Also, if you’re trying to make some case for the existence of God, I can assure you that I am a believer precisely because of the miraculousness of the origin of life, and that Genesis has no right to be read as a scientific document.

    • Liesandpolitics

      Booboobear2388 again, you’re conflating/confusing evolution, a process of change of existing biological populations, with the origins of life itself. Evolution is not abiogenesis. I can see that you’re very articulate and well read, but you seem to be really struggling w/ this concept.

    • Booboobear2388

      @Liesandpolitics - We don't have the means to understand how it happened? Then we don't really have much, do we? Evolution is replicable and repeatable? So where was the formation of life repeated? Can you cite the research facility and principle scientists? I wasn't aware of this breakthrough. This is amazing.

    • Liesandpolitics

      Booboobear2388 Evolution is replicable and repeatable, the origin of life is still under debate and we frankly don’t have the means to understand how it happened. But we do understand certain conditions that would need to exist prior and so far earth seems to be potentially the only planet in the known universe where the origin of life could have taken place.

  • Figit

    We don't even know the vastness of the universe.... We couldn't even say that there is no possibility that there is a second planet in the vastness of the universe that also harbours life in any form...


    Space is big. You just won't believe how vastly hugely mindbogglingly big it is. I mean you may think it's a long way down the road to the chemist's but that's just peanuts to space. ---Douglas Adams. I can't except the premise that we are alone in this universe.

  • riceismyname

    i think it's more likely that we just haven't had enough time to find alien life, coupled with the fact that everything is so far apart. we've only been exploring space for around 50 years, a time period so small it's immeasurable in a universe stretched across billions of lightyears. if intelligent life is rare, we shouldn't expect to see it on every earth-like planet near us, and not right at this moment. humans have only been on earth for a few thousand years, so maybe intelligent life will pop up on Proxima Centauri b in a few thousand years from now, or maybe there's already been intelligent life near us that went extinct millions of years ago. just because we're here now, doesn't mean intelligent life elsewhere needs to be. although, there could be intelligent life out there right now that's too far away for us to see. there could be an active galactic empire 3 million lightyears away- if it came to fruition in the last 3 million years we'd have no idea it's there because we're seeing how it looked before. because earth is the only sample space for life we have, we have no idea what's a universal requirement for life and what's earth-specific. there could be mermaids chilling in a subsurface ocean of liquid ammonia in an ice planet for all we know

    • Velky Lev
      Velky Lev

      But we also understand that our situation is very special. Imagine you winning jackpot 10 times in one lifetime

    • Wilson Huber
      Wilson Huber

      @Arthur Zettel -and just where in the cosmic dust do you get this undocumented info?

    • Arthur Zettel
      Arthur Zettel

      There is a planet 40 some odd light years away from Earth that is larger but very similar. It's very plausible that the planets intelligence is either our level or far beyond and is bipedal like human's.

    • 2A42

      How can we assume the likeliness of alien life, if we don't even know the probability or conditions necessary for abiogenesis? Like you said, we only have one sample size.

    • Wilson Huber
      Wilson Huber

      very good - my theory also

  • Miguel A
    Miguel A

    To be fair given how intelligent we are, the only place we've really checked in the entire universe is the light side of the moon

  • KAI

    Wait I’m not going to watch this cause UFO have been confirmed so..

  • The River of Faith
    The River of Faith

    We were made in the image of God. One day all the stars will disappear. There are no aliens. Read the Bible.

    • The River of Faith
      The River of Faith

      Wilson Huber Because He created us in His image. Is this too hard for you to understand? Have you tested this to see if it might be true?

    • Wilson Huber
      Wilson Huber

      Without a mirroir, how did he know what we should look like ?

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